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Renewable Energy Certificates
Blank, E. with L. Bird and B. Swezey. "A Certificate-Based Approach to Marketing Green Power and Constructing New Wind Energy Facilities." Conference paper prepared for Windpower 2002, June 2-5, 2002, Portland, Oregon. (PDF 472 KB)
Center for Resource Solutions. Renewable Energy Credits Trading: The Potential and the Pitfalls, San Francisco, California, 2001.
Center for Resource Solutions. (2003). Regulator's Handbook on Tradable Renewable Certificates, San Francisco, California.
Cory, Karlynn S., Nils Bolgen, and Barry J. Sheingold, 2004. Long-Term Revenue Support To Help Developers Secure Project Financing. Paper prepared for the Massachusetts Technology Collaborative presented at Global Windpower 2004 Conference And Exhibition, Chicago, Illinois, March 28-31, 2004. (PDF 214 KB)
Econergy International Corporation. Credit Trading and Wind Power: Issues and Opportunities. Prepared for the National Wind Coordinating Committee, January 2001.
Environmental Tracking Network of North America (ETNNA), 2010. The Intersection Between Carbon, RECs, and Tracking: Accounting and Tracking the Carbon Attributes of Renewable Energy. White Paper, February. (PDF 406 KB)
Federal Energy Management Program, "Quick Guide: Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs)" (Fact Sheet). FS-7A20-52105; DOE/GO-102011-3339, 2011. (PDF 545 KB)
Fitzgerald, G., R. Wiser, and M. Bolinger, 2003. The Experience of State Clean Energy Funds with Tradable Renewable Certificates, Berkeley, California: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Clean Energy States Alliance, November. (PDF 464 KB)
Ford, Andrew, K. Vogstad, H. Flynn, 2007. "Simulating price patterns for tradable green certificates to promote electricity generation form wind." Energy Policy, Volume 35, Issue 1, January. (PDF 445 KB)
Gillenwater, M., 2007. Redefining RECs (Part 1): Untangling attributes and offsets, Discussion paper, Science Technology and Environmental Policy Program. Princeton University, Princeton, NJ. (PDF 323 KB)
Gillenwater, M., 2007. Redefining RECs (Part 2): Untangling certificates and emission markets, Discussion paper, Science Technology and Environmental Policy Program. Princeton University, Princeton, NJ. (PDF 167 KB)
Giovinetto, A. "On the Track of Green Certificates," Environmental Finance, September 2003. (PDF 520 KB)
Grace, R. and R. Wiser. Transacting Generation Attributes Across Market Boundaries: Compatible Information Systems and the Treatment of Imports and Exports, LBNL-51703, November 2002. (PDF 538 KB)
Hanson, C., V. Van Son, "RECs: Tapping Into The Commercial Customer," North American
Windpower, June 2004. (PDF 208 KB)
Hanson, C., V. Van Son, "RECs: Innovative Products for Wind Power Markets," North American
Windpower, May 2004. (PDF 244 KB)
Hanson, C. and V. Van Son, 2003. Renewable Energy Certificates: An Attractive Means For Corporate Customers To Purchase Renewable Energy. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute, September. (PDF 151 KB)
Harmon, R. and A. Duncan. Description of BEF's Green Tag Product, Bonneville Environmental Foundation, July 15, 2000. (PDF 184 KB)
Heeter, J., L. Bird, 2011. Status and Trends in U.S. Compliance and Voluntary Renewable Energy Certificate Markets (2010 Data). NREL/TP-6A20-52925 (PDF 1.6 MB)
Holt, E. and R. Wiser, 2007. The Treatment of Renewable Energy Certificates, Emissions Allowances, and Green Power Programs in State Renewables Portfolio Standards. Report prepared for Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California, April. LBNL-62574. (PDF 292 KB)
Holt, E., J. Sumner, L. Bird, 2011. Role of Renewable Energy Certificates in Developing New Renewable Energy Projects. TP-6A20-51904. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, July. (PDF 1.1 MB)
Holt, E. "Renewable Energy Certificates and Generation Attributes," Issuesletter, Regulatory Assistance Project, Gardiner, Maine, May 2003. (PDF 356 KB)
Holt, E., L. Bird, "Emerging Markets For RECs: Opportunities And Challenges," North American Windpower, July 2005. (PDF 124 KB)
Holt, E.A. and L. Bird, 2005. Emerging Markets for Renewable Energy Certificates: Opportunities and Challenges, NREL/TP-620-37388. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, January. (PDF 1.9 MB)
Holt, Ed, R. Wiser and M. Bolinger, 2006. Who Owns Renewable Energy Certificates? An Exploration of Policy Options and Practice. Report prepared for Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California, April. LBNL-59965. (PDF 376 KB)
Holt, Ed. "Tradable Renewable Energy Certificates," Green Power Newsletter, Number 8, Regulatory Assistance Project, Gardiner, Maine, July 2001. (PDF 185 KB)
Leahy, P. and A. Hathaway, 2004. Renewable Energy Certificates and Air Emissions Benefits: Developing an Appropriate Definition for a REC. Washington, DC: Environmental Resources Trust, Inc. (ERT), April. (PDF 180 KB)
Lieberman, Dan (2004). The Need for Green-E Certification and Verification in an Era of Renewable Energy Tracking Systems. San Francisco, CA: Center for Resource Solutions (CRS), March. (PDF 257 KB)
Lieberman, Dan, (2004). Tradable Renewable Certificates and Emissions Values: The CRS Perspective on Best Practices in Marketing. San Francisco, CA: Center for Resource Solutions (CRS), March. (PDF 603 KB)
NARUC Energy Resources and Environment Committee, "Resolution Supporting a Handbook for Regulators on Renewable Energy Certificate," Winter 2003.
NARUC Energy Resources and Environment Committee, "Resolution to Support the Incorporation of Regional Energy Generation Tracking Systems in ISO/RTO Responsibilities and in FERC's Standard Market Design" Summer 2002.
National Wind Coordinating Committee, 2001. Consensus NWCC Credit Trading Opportunities and Guidelines, Washington, D.C., May. (PDF 47 KB)
National Wind Coordinating Committee, 2002. NWCC Credit Trading and Wind Power: Issues and Opportunities, February. (PDF 401 KB)
Presentations from the DOE/EPA Green Tags Meeting, December 12, 2000.
Renewable Energy Certificate (REC) Markets and Challenges Workshop Proceedings. Washington, DC. September 11, 2007.
Starrs, T. "Green Tags: A New Way to Support Renewable Energy," Solar Today, July/August 2001. (PDF 383 KB)
Swezey, B., L. Bird. "Buying Green Power - You Really Can Make a Difference," Solar Today, Jan/Feb 2003. (PDF 128 KB)
Wingate, Meredith and M. Lehman, (2003). The Current Status of Renewable Energy Certificate Tracking Systems in North America. Report to The Commission for Environmental Cooperation, December. (PDF 419 KB)