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Disclosure & Certification

Abe, J., L. Alexander, C. Clark, and R. Rosen "NETS: Capturing Electricity Information in New England," The Electricity Journal, (May): 46-54, 1999.

Biewald, B., D. White and T. Woolf "Follow the Money: A Method for Tracking Electricity for Environmental Disclosure," The Electricity Journal, 12(4): 55-60, 1999.

Bird, L. "Understanding the Environmental Impacts of Electricity: Product Labeling and Certification," Corporate Environmental Strategy, Vol 9(2): 129-136, 2002.

Bird, L.A. Understanding the Environmental Impacts of Electricity: Product Labeling and Certification. NREL/TP-620-33475. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, February 2003. (PDF 541 KB)

Center for Clean Air Policy Disclosure in the Electricity Marketplace: A Policy Handbook for States. Washington, DC, 1998.

Environmental Tracking Network of North America (ETNNA), 2009. System Changes to Serve a Federal RES. June. (PDF 164 KB)

Greene, Andrew. "What Color is Your Electricity?: Energy IT Solves Age-Old Question" Public Utilities Fortnightly, July 1, 2002.

Grimm, Lydia. Certifying Hydropower for "Green" Energy Markets: The Development, Implementation, and Future of the Low Impact Hydropower Certification Program, Low Impact Hydropower Institute, Portland, Oregon, May 2002.

Holt, E.A. Disclosure and Certification: Truth and Labeling for Electric Power. Renewable Energy Policy Project, Issue Brief No. 5, January 1997.

National Council on Competition and the Electric Industry "Uniform Consumer Disclosure Standards for New England: Report and Recommendations to the New England Utility Regulatory Commissions, October 6, 1997." Prepared for the New England Utility Regulatory Commissions, October 1997. 6.

Oppenheim, J. and B. Alexander. Model Electricity Consumer Protection Disclosures, Report to The National Council on Competition and the Electric Industry, 1998. (PDF 267 KB)

Patterson, M.J. and I.H. Rowlands. "Beauty in the Eye of the Beholder: A Comparison of 'Green Power' Certification Programs in Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States," Energy and Environment, 13(1): 1-25, 2002.

Rabago, K., R. Wiser, and J. Hamrin "The Green-e Program: An Opportunity for Customers" The Electricity Journal, 11(1) 37-45, 1998.

Resolution in Support of Customer "Right-to-Know" and Product Labeling Standards, National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners. July 1996. (PDF 76 KB)

Sedano, Richard. Electric Product Disclosure: A Status Report. Prepared by Regulatory Assistance Project for the National Council on Competition and the Electric Industry's Consumer Information Disclosure Series, June, 2002. (PDF 1.2 MB)

The National Council on Competition and the Electric Industry. A Summary of Research on Information Disclosure: Synthesis Report. October 1998. (PDF 325 KB)

Truffer, B. J. Markard, and R. Wustenhagen. "Eco-labeling of Electricity- Strategies and Tradeoffs in the Definition of Environmental Standards," Energy Policy 29 (11): 885-897, 2001.

Volpi, Giulio and J. Green. "Consumer Power - A new label for green electricity products," Renewable Energy World, Nov/Dec 2002, 5(6):67-75, 2002.

Wiser, R. "Greening the Electricity Industry: The Dynamic Logic of the Green-e Certification Program" Corporate Environmental Strategy, Vol 6(1): 25-35, 1999.

Wiser, R. "Supporting Renewable Generation Through Green Power Certification: The Green-e Program" Report prepared by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California, September 1998. LBNL-42485. (PDF 376 KB)

Green Power Marketing

Asmus, P. "Power To The People: How Local Governments Can Build Green Electricity Markets," Renewable Energy Policy Project, Issue Brief No. 9, January 1998.

Aulisi, A. and C. Hanson, 2004. Corporate Guide to Green Power Markets (Installment 6): Developing Next Generation Green Power Products for Corporate Markets in North America. World Resources Institute, Washington, DC. (PDF 532 KB)

Austin, Duncan and Craig Hanson. Introducing Green Power for Corporate Markets: Business Case, Challenges, and Steps Forward. World Resources Institute, Washington, DC, July 2002.

Bird, L., L. Dagher, and B. Swezey, 2007. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report (Tenth Edition), NREL/TP-670-42502. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, December. (PDF 2.1 MB)

Bird, L., C. Kreycik, and B. Friedman, 2009. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report (2008 Data), NREL/TP-6A2-46581. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, September. (PDF 880 KB)

Bird, L., C. Kreycik, and B. Friedman, 2008. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report (Eleventh Edition), NREL/TP-6A2-44094. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, October. (PDF 762 KB)

Bird, L., J. Sumner, 2010. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report (2009 Data). NREL/TP-6A20-49403. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, September. (PDF 1.1 MB)

Bird, L., E. Holt, and G. Carroll, 2007. Implications of Carbon Regulation for Green Power Markets, NREL/TP-640-41076. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, April. (PDF 982 KB)

Bird, L. and B. Swezey, 2003. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report (Sixth Edition), NREL/TP-620-35119. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, October. (PDF 1.6 MB)

Bird, L. and B. Swezey, 2004. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report (Seventh Edition), NREL/TP-620-36823. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, September. (PDF 2.1 MB)

Bird, L. and B. Swezey, 2005. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report (Eighth Edition), NREL/TP-620-38994. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, October. (PDF 2.6 MB)

Bird, L. and B. Swezey, 2006. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report (Ninth Edition), NREL/TP-620-40904. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, November. (PDF 1.5 MB)

Bird, L. and E.S. Brown, 2006. Utility-Marketer Partnerships: An Effective Strategy for Marketing Green Power?. NREL/TP-620-39730. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, April. (PDF 766 KB)

Bird, L., R. Wustenhagen, J. Aabakken, "A Review of International Green Power Markets: Recent Experience, Trends, and Market Drivers" Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 6(6): 513-536, 2002.

Bird, L., and E. Holt, "Aggregated Purchasing — A Clean Energy Strategy," Solar Today, Nov/Dec 2002, 16(6): 34-37. (PDF 642 KB)

Bird, L., R. Wustenhagen, and J. Aabakken. Green Power Marketing Abroad: Recent Experience and Trends, NREL/TP-620-32155. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, April 2002. (PDF 1.1 MB)

Bird, L., B. Swezey, "Green Power Marketing In The United States," North American Windpower, January 2005. (PDF 80 KB)

Brennan, P. "In Power Market, It's Not Easy Being Green." Orange County Register, December 21, 1997.

Center for Resource Solutions, 2001 Green-e Verification Report, San Francisco, California, December 2002. (PDF 279 KB)

Davidson, R. "Competition and the Green Challenge," Wind Power Monthly, June: pp. 30-35, 1997.

Davidson, R. "A Green Power Market in the Making," Wind Power Monthly, March, 15 (1): 34-40, 1999.

Dogterom, J. J., M. McCulloch, and A. Pape-Salmon. Green Power Marketing in Canada: The State of the Industry, Pembina Institute, Drayton Valley, Alberta, Canada. December 2002.

Dunn, S. Power of Choice. World Watch, (September/October): 30-35, 1997.

Eckhart, M., 2004. Challenge and Change: Marketing Renewable Energy in America, Renewable Energy World, 7(1) January/February: 60-69.

Energy Center of Wisconsin "Green Power in Perspective: Lessons from the Marketing of Consumer Goods." December 1997.

Environmental Futures The Massachusetts Electric Choice New England Pilot: A Focus on the Green Option. Subcontract Report No. 23552. Work performed by Environmental Futures, Boston, Massachusetts, for National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO. August 1997.

Fang, J. Power Marketing and Renewable Energy. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, September 1997. (NREL/SP-460-22080)

Federal Energy Management Program. Purchasing Renewable Energy: A Guidebook for Federal Agencies. Prepared by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories, September 2000.

Gifford, G. Green Power Marketing in Rhode Island. Prepared by Cause & Effect for Save the Bay, 1997.

Glaser, P. "Green Power Marketing Claims: A Free Ride on Conventional Power," Electricity Journal, 12(6): 32-40, 1999.

Golove, B., M. Bolinger and R. Wiser. Purchasing Renewable Energy: A Guidebook for Federal Agencies, Prepared by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, LBNL 46766, August 2000. (PDF 788 KB)

Gornstein, L. "Fuzzy Advertising May Set Consumers Up For Future Shock." Orange County Register. December 21. 1997.

"Green Electricity" Editorial, Boston Globe, June 8, 1998, p. A14.

Green Mountain Power Proposal for Restructuring in the Electric Utility Industry, 1998.

Heeter, J., P. Armstrong, L. Bird, 2012. Market Brief: Status of the Voluntary Renewable Energy Certificate Market (2011 Data). NREL/TP-6A20-52925 (PDF 974 KB)

Heeter, J., T. Nicholas, 2013. Status and Trends in the U.S. Voluntary Green Power Market (2012 Data). NREL Report No. TP-6A20-60210. (PDF 1.2 MB)

Holt, E. and Fang, J. The New Hampshire Retail Competition Pilot Program & The Role of Green Marketing, Topical Issues Brief. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, November 1997. (NREL/SP-260-23446)

Holt, E. "It's the Market, Stupid!", Green Power Newsletter, No. 7, April, 1999. Regulatory Assistance Project, Gardiner, Maine. (PDF 1.53 MB)

Holt, E. and L. Bird. Customer Aggregation: An Opportunity for Green Power? NREL/TP-620-29408. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, February 2001. (PDF 556 KB)

Holt, E. and R. Wiser. Understanding Consumer Demand for Green Power. Report prepared for the National Wind Coordinating Committee, 1999.

Holt, E.A., R. Wiser, M. Fowlie, R. Mayer and S. Innis. 2000. Understanding Non-Residential Demand for Green Power. Report prepared for the American Wind Energy Association and National Wind Coordinating Committee. December/Updated April 2001. (PDF 1.3 MB)

Jones, L. "Educated Opinions," in Electric Perspectives, (Jan/Feb):10-17, 1997.

Main, T., T. Morsta and L. Hall, Unplugging Texas' Most Powerful Polluters: A Report On How To Choose Electricity and Why It Matters. Prepared for Public Citizen's Texas Office and The SEED Coalition, July 2002. (PDF 505 KB)

Massy, J. "Many a Weed in the Nursery Market," Wind Power Monthly, September, 15 (9): 34-41, 1999.

Mayer, R., E. Blank, R. Udall, and J. Nielsen Promoting Renewable Energy in a Market Environment: A Community-Based Approach for Aggregating Green Demands. Report prepared by the Land and Water Fund of the Rockies, Boulder, Colorado and the Community Office of Resource Efficiency, Aspen, Colorado, 1997. (PDF 224 KB)

Mayer, Rudd, Eric Blank and Blair Swezey. "The Grassroots are Greener: A Community-Based Approach to Marketing Green Power", Research Report, No.8, June, 1999. Renewable Energy Policy Project, Washington, DC.

Means, R. "Evaluation of a Proposal for Green Power Price Insurance," Special Report of the Renewable Energy Policy Project, May 1999.

Moore, M. "How California is Advancing Green Power," Electricity Journal, 13(7): 72-77, 2000.

Motavalli, J. "Power Struggle: Will Deregulation Finally Unplug 'Dirty' Electricity?" E/The Environmental Magazine, November 1997.

Ottman, J. "Renewable Energy: Ultimate Marketing Challenge," Marketing News, April 1997.

Ottman, J. Green Marketing: Opportunity For Innovation, Second Edition, NTCContemporary Books, 270 pp., 1998. (ISBN#: 0-8442-3239-4)

Pepper, J.C. "Premiums Paid for Green Generation in the APX Green Power Market." Conference paper prepared for Windpower 2000, April 30 - May 3, 2000, Palm Springs, California. (PDF 293 KB)

Rader, N. "California Green Power Marketing: Predictably Disappointing." American Local Power Project, Guest Opinion, December 1998.

Rader, N. Green Buyers Beware: A Critical Review of "Green Electricity" Products, Public Citizen, October 1998.

Rader, N. and W. Short (1998). "Competitive Retail Markets: Tenuous Ground for Renewable Energy." The Electricity Journal, 11(3).

Rader, N. "Fundamental Requirements for an Effective Green Market." Prepared for the Second Annual Green Marketing & Green Pricing Conference. Corpus Chriti, TX, May 13, 1997.

ReGen Technologies. Charter of ReGen Technologies. May 1997.

Reed, G. and A. Houston. Status of the U.S. Green Power Market, Prepared for the ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, August 2000. (PDF 1.7 MB)

Rothstein, S. and Fang, J. Green Marketing in the Massachusetts Electric Retail Competition Pilot Program, Topical Issues Brief. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. October 1997. (NREL/SP-260-23507)

Serchuk, A. and R. Hirsh "Condemned to Repeat? IOUs, History, and Green Markets." The Electricity Journal, 11(2) 76-86, 1998.

Swezey, B. and L. Bird. "Businesses Lead the "Green Power" Charge," Solar Today, Jan/Feb 2001, Vol. 15, No. 1.

Swezey, B., L. Bird, and C. Herig. "Supporting Solar Through Green Power Markets." Paper presented at the American Solar Energy Society Conference, Austin, Texas, June 26, 2003. (PDF 144 KB)

Swezey, B.G., Bird, L. and Peterson, T.M. Presentations of the Sixth DOE/EPRI Green Pricing and Green Power Marketing Conference, 2001.

Swezey, B.G., Bird, L. and Peterson, T.M. Summary of the Fifth DOE/EPRI Green Pricing and Green Power Marketing Conference, 2000.

Swezey, B. and Bird, L. Information Brief on Green Power Marketing, 4th Edition. NREL/TP-620-26901. Golden: CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, August 1999. (PDF 629 KB)

Swezey, B. and L. Bird, Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report, NREL/TP-620-28738. Golden: CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, August 2000. (PDF 616 KB)

Swezey, B.G., Bird, L. and Peterson, T.M. Presentations of the Sixth DOE/EPRI Green Pricing and Green Power Marketing Conference, 2002.

Swezey, B., A. Houston and K. Porter, "Green Power Takes Off with Choice in Electricity," Public Utilities Fortnightly, August 1998.

Swezey, B.G. and Peterson, T.M. Summary of the Fourth DOE/EPRI Green Pricing and Green Power Marketing Conference, 1999.

Swezey, B.G. and Peterson, T.M. Summary of the Third DOE/EPRI Green Pricing and Green Power Marketing Conference, 1998.

Swezey, B.G. and Peterson, T.M. Summary of the Second DOE/EPRI Green Pricing and Green Power Marketing Conference, 1997.

Swezey, B.G. and T.M. Peterson. Summary of the First DOE/EPRI Green Pricing Workshop, 1996.

Tampier, M. Promoting Green Power In Canada. Prepared by Pollution Probe for Environment Canada. November 2002. (PDF 4 MB)

U.S. EPA Green Power Partnership, A Guide to Buying and Benefitting from Green Power (Draft), Washington, D.C., 2002.

United States Federal Trade Commission, 2001. Competition and Consumer Protection Perspectives on Electric Power Regulatory Reform: Focus on Retail Competition, Staff Report. September. (PDF 912 KB)

United States Federal Trade Commission, 2000. Competition and Consumer Protection Perspectives on Electric Power Regulatory Reform, Staff Report. July.

Wind Energy Weekly. "Green Pricing Concept Gains Ground; Issues Remain. Ultimate Value of Green Marketing Plans Will Depend on Competition, Says AWEA." May 26, 1997, pp. 1-3.

Wiser, R. 2003. Using Contingent Valuation to Explore Willingness to Pay for Renewable Energy: A Comparison of Collective and Voluntary Payment Vehicles. LBNL-53239. Berkeley, California: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. (PDF 9.1 MB)

Wiser, R. and S. Pickle Selling Green Power in California: Product Industry and Market Trends. Report prepared by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California, May 1998. LBNL-41807. (PDF 158 KB)

Wiser, R. and S. Pickle."Green Marketing, Renewable, and Free Riders: Increasing Customer Demand for a Public Good. Report prepared by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California. September 1997. LBNL-40632. (PDF 212 KB)

Wiser, R., S. Pickle and J. Eto Details, Details... The Impact of Market Rules on Emerging "Green" Energy Markets. Report prepared by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California. September, 1998. LBNL-41812. (PDF 172)

Wiser, R., Porter K., Fang J. and Houston A. Green Power Marketing in Retail Competition: An Early Assessment Report prepared by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California and National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO. February, 1999. LBNL-42286; NREL/TP.620.25939. (PDF 232 KB)

Wiser, R., M. Bolinger, E. Holt, and B. Swezey. Forecasting the Growth of Green Power Markets in the United States. (PDF 1 MB) NREL/TP-620-30101, Golden: CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, October 2001.

Wiser, R., M. Bolinger, and E. Holt. Customer Choice and Green Power Marketing: A Critical Review and Analysis of Experience to Date. Prepared for the ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, August 2000. (PDF 1.7 MB)

Wiser, R.H. "The Role of Public Policy in Emerging Green Power Markets: An Analysis of Marketer Preferences," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 4(2):177-212, 2000. (PDF 186 KB)

Wood, E. "Retail Marketing: Power Providers, Regulators Learn Hard Truths of Product Marketing 101," Electrical World, May 1997, pp. 42-44.

Zarnikau, J. 2003. "Consumer Demand for 'Green Power' and Energy Efficiency." Energy Policy, 31: 1661-1672.

Green Pricing

Asmus, P. "Customers Across Country Choose Green Power," Clean Power Journal, Special Earthday Edition, 1997.

Baugh, K., B. Byrnes, K. Jones and M. Rahimzedah "Green Pricing: Removing the Guesswork," Public Utilities Fortnightly, 133 (15): 26-28, 1995.

Bird, L. and M. Kaiser, 2007. Trends in Utility Green Pricing Programs (2006), NREL/TP-670-42287. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, October. (PDF 786 KB)

Bird, L., B. Swezey, and K. Cory, 2008. Renewable Energy Price-Stability Benefits in Utility Green Power Programs, NREL/TP-670-43532. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, August. (PDF 591 KB)

Bird, L., B. Swezey, and J. Aabakken, 2004. Utility Green Pricing Programs: Design, Implementation, and Consumer Response, NREL/TP-620-35618. Golden CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, February. (PDF 612 KB)

Bird, L. and E. Brown, 2005. Trends in Utility Green Pricing Programs (2004), NREL/TP-620-38800. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, October. (PDF 858 KB)

Bird, L. and E.S. Brown, 2006. Trends in Utility Green Pricing Programs (2005). NREL/TP-620-40777. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, October. (PDF 812 KB)

Bird, L. and K. Cardinal, 2004. Trends in Utility Green Pricing Programs (2003), NREL/TP-620-36833. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, September. (PDF 898 KB)

Bolding, Këri. "Best Practices in Marketing Green Pricing Programs," Center for Resource Solutions and American Public Power Association. November 2003.

Byrnes. B., M. Rahimzadeh, K. Baugh and C. Jones Caution: Renewable Energy Fog Ahead! Shedding Light on the Marketability of Renewables. Paper presented at Profits in the Public Interest: NARUC-DOE Conference on Renewables and Sustainable Energy Strategies in a Competitive Market, Madison, Wis., May 7-10, 1995.

Carrier, J. "Green Energy an Option." Denver Post, June 19, C1, 1996. (PDF 104 KB)

Eber, K. Green Pricing Opens New Markets for Renewables. This paper provided the basis for an article published in Electrical World, September 1995.

Edison Electric Institute "The 'Green Pricing' Evolution, A Niche Market Is Developing for Electricity Generated with Renewables," EEI Marketing Electricity Today, 3(1), January 1997.

Etra, D. Powerful Choices IV: A Survey of Retail Green Power Programs in the Pacific Northwest, Renewable Northwest Project, Portland, OR, August 2003. (PDF 644 KB)

Friedman, B., and M. Miller, 2009. Green Pricing Program Marketing Expenditures: Finding the Right Balance, NREL/TP-6A2-46449. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, September. (PDF 1.1 MB)

Gibbs, W.W. "Change in the Wind," Scientific American, (October): 46, 1997.

Hamrin, J., D. Lieberman, and M. Wingate, 2006. Regulator's Handbook on Renewable Energy Programs and Tariffs. San Francisco, California: The Center for Resource Solution, April. (PDF 587 KB)

Harris, N. Powerful Choices III: A Survey of Retail Green Power Programs in the Pacific Northwest and Beyond, Renewable Northwest Project, Portland, OR, August 2002.

Holt, E. A. Green Pricing Experience and Lessons Learned. 1996 ACEEE Summer Study, August 1996. (PDF 152 KB)

Holt, E.A. Green Pricing Resource Guide (PDF 586 KB), Regulatory Assistance Project, Gardiner, Maine, February 1997.

Holt, E.A., and M. Holt, 2004. Green Pricing Resource Guide 2nd Edition, Ed Holt & Associates, Inc., Harpswell, Maine. Prepared for the American Wind Energy Association, Washington, DC, 2004. (PDF 433 KB)

Irvine, L. Powerful Choices: A Survey of Retail Green Power Programs in the Pacific Northwest and Beyond, Renewable Northwest Project, Portland, OR, August 2000.

Jenkins, J., 2006. Powerful Choices VI: A Survey of Retail Green Power Programs in the Pacific Northwest. Renewable Northwest Project, Portland, OR, September. (PDF 2.2 MB)

Johannesen, R. Solar for Schools - Demonstration Project Overview, 1995.

Johannesen, R. and S. Kanellopoulos Solar for Schools: An Inherently Cost-Effective Demand Side Management Strategy, 1995.

Kerber, R. "For Sale: Environmentally Correct Electricity," Wall Street Journal, July 23, 1997, pp. B1 & B5.

Lamarre, L. "Utility Customers Go for the Green," EPRI Journal, (March/April): 7-15, 1997.

Lieberman, D. Green Pricing at Public Utilities: A How-To Guide Based on Lessons Learned to Date, Prepared for the Public Renewables Partnership by the Center for Resource Solutions, San Francisco, California, October 2002 (PDF 830 KB)

M. Tennis, P. Jefferiss, and S. Clemmer, Cooperative Wind: How Co-ops and Advocates Expanded Wind Power in Minnesota, Renewable Energy Policy Project, External Publication No. 2, April 1998.

Massy, J. "UK Reveals Good and Bad in Green Pricing," Wind Power Monthly, (July): 34-36, 1997.

Moore, E. Powerful Choices II: A Survey of Retail Green Power Programs in the Pacific Northwest and Beyond, Renewable Northwest Project, Portland, OR, September 2001.

Moskovitz, D. "Green Pricing: Customer Choice Moves Beyond IRP." Electricity Journal. 6 (8): 42-50, 1993.

Moskovitz, D. Green Pricing: Experience and Lessons Learned. Gardiner, ME: Regulatory Assistance Project, 1993.

Osborn, D. and D. Collier The Sustained Orderly Development of Utility, Grid-Connected Photovoltaics. Paper presented at 1st International Conference on Solar Electric Buildings, Boston, MA, March 1996.

Osborn, D. and D. Collier Utility Grid-Connected Distributed Power Systems. Paper presented at the National Solar Energy Conference, ASES Solar '96, Asheville, NC, April 1996. (PDF 836 KB)

Q4 Associates and TecMRKT Works. The Fort Collins Wind Power Pilot Program: Who Subscribed and Why?. Prepared for the City of Fort Collins Utilities, Fall 1999.

Regulatory Assistance Project, Green Pricing Newsletter, No. 2, May 1995. (PDF 175 KB)

Regulatory Assistance Project, Green Pricing Newsletter, No. 3, April 1996. (PDF 172 KB)

Regulatory Assistance Project, Green Pricing Newsletter, No. 4, October 1996. (PDF 176 KB)

Regulatory Assistance Project, Green Power Newsletter, No. 5, May 1997. (PDF 174 KB)

Regulatory Assistance Project, Green Pricing Newsletter, No. 6, March 1998. (PDF 191 KB)

Regulatory Assistance Project, Green Pricing Newsletter, No. 7, April 1999. (PDF 1.5 MB)

"Renewable Energy Powers Renewable Energy Lab, Employees." National Renewable Energy Laboratory, July 9, 1997, news release. (PDF 72 KB)

Ryals, Cindy, 2005. Powerful Choices V: A Survey of Retail Green Power Programs in the Pacific Northwest, Renewable Northwest Project, Portland, OR, July. (PDF 2.1 MB)

Swezey, B.G. and T.M. Peterson Summary of the Second DOE/EPRI Green Pricing and Green Power Marketing Conference, 1997.

Swezey, B. "Utility Green Pricing Programs: Market Evolution or Devolution?", Solar Today, (January/February): 21-23, 1997. (PDF 240 KB)

Swezey, B. and L. Bird, Utility Green Pricing Programs: What Defines Success? NREL/TP-620-29831 Golden: CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, August 2001. (PDF 1.1 MB)

Washington Department of Community, Trade and Economic Development (CTED) and Utilities Transportation Commission (UTC), 2006. Green Power Programs in Washington: A Report to the Legislature. Olympia, WA, December. (PDF 136 KB)

Washington Department of Community, Trade and Economic Development (CTED) and Utilities Transportation Commission (UTC), 2005. Green Power Programs in Washington: A Report to the Legislature. Olympia, WA, December. (PDF 165 KB)

Washington Department of Community, Trade and Economic Development (CTED) and Utilities Transportation Commission (UTC), 2004. Green Power Programs in Washington: A Report to the Legislature. Olympia, WA, December. (PDF 912 KB)

Washington Department of Community, Trade and Economic Development (CTED) and Utilities Transportation Commission (UTC), 2003. Green Power Programs in Washington: A Report to the Legislature. Olympia, WA, December.

Wind Energy Weekly. "Green Pricing Concept Gains Ground; Issues Remain. Ultimate Value of Green Marketing Plans Will Depend on Competition, Says AWEA." (May 26): 1-3, 1997.

Wisconsin State Journal, "Customers Need Choice of Renewable Energy", December 18, 1997.

Wiser, R. and S. Olsen, with L. Bird and B. Swezey. Utility Green Pricing Programs: A Statistical Analysis of Program Effectiveness. Report prepared by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California, February 2004. LBNL-54437. (PDF 224 KB)

Wright, L. "Pollution Prevention by Customer Choice: The Green Pricing Option."

Greenhouse Gas Offsets

Bird, L., J. Sumner, 2011. Using Renewable Energy Purchases to Achieve Carbon Goals. NREL/TP-6A20-49938. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, January. (PDF 614 KB)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2014. Green Power Procurement: A Guide to Developing and Implementing Greenhouse Gas Reduction Programs. Local Government Climate and Energy Strategy Series. EPA 430-R-09-045 (PDF 890 KB)

Market Research

Baugh, K., B. Byrnes, and C. Jones Developing a Customer Driven Renewable Program: Public Service Company of Colorado's Use of Market Research Findings. 6th Biennial Marketing Research Symposium. Palo Alto, CA: Electric Power Research Institute. 55-68, 1994. (EPRI TR-104558)

Bird, L., J. Heeter, and C. Kreycik, 2011. Solar Renewable Energy Certificate (SREC) Markets: Status and Trends. NREL/TP-6A20-52868 (PDF 1.2 MB)

Bird, L., E. Holt, J. Sumner, and C. Kreycik, 2010. Voluntary Green Power Market Forecast through 2015, NREL/TP-6A2-48158. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, May. (PDF 695 KB)

Bird, L. and E. Lokey, 2007. Interaction of Compliance and Voluntary Renewable Energy Markets, NREL/ TP-670-42096. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, October. (PDF 1.1 MB)

Bird, L. and B. Swezey, 2005. Estimates of New Renewable Energy Capacity Serving U.S. Green Power Markets (2004). Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, September. (PDF 140 KB)

Bird, L., D. Hurlbut, P. Donohoo, K. Cory, and C. Kreycik, 2010. Examination of the Regional Supply and Demand Balance for Renewable Electricity in the United States through 2015 (Revised). NREL/TP-6A2-45041. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, June. Original publication date: March 2009 (PDF 889 KB)

California Energy Commission. Renewable Energy Study, P500-02-016, November 2001. (PDF 396 KB)

Clark, C.F., M.J. Kotchen, and M.R. Moore. (2003). "Internal and External Influences on Pro-Environmental Behavior: Participation in a Green Electricity Program," Journal of Environmental Psychology, June, 23: 237-246.

EPRI Green Power Guidelines: Volume 2, Assessing Small- and Medium-Sized Business Market Segments, 1999. Order Number: TR-109192-V2.

Elefant, C., E. Holt, 2011. The Commerce Clause and Implications for State Renewable Portfolio Standard. Montpelier, VT: Clean Energy States Alliance, April.

Environmental Leader and Retailer Daily, 2010. Enterprise Renewable Energy Adoption Survey: Benchmarking Onsite Renewable Energy Generation, Purchasing & REC Buying. Environmental Leader, LLC, published in association with Retailer Daily. (PDF 665 KB)

Farhar, B. Trends in Public Perceptions and Preferences on Energy and Environmental Policy: Executive Summary. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1993. (NREL/EP-461-4857a) Full report is available through NTIS.

Farhar, B.C. and A. Houston Willingness to Pay for Electricity from Renewable Energy. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, September 1996. (NREL/TP-460-21216)

Farhar, B.C. Energy and the Environment: The Public View. Renewable Energy Policy Projects Issue Brief No. 3. October 1996.

Farhar, B.C. and T. Coburn Colorado Homeowner Preferences on Energy and Environmental Policy, Technical Report, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, 1999. NREL/TP-550-25285. (PDF 552 KB)

Farhar, B.C. Willingness to Pay for Electricity from Renewable Resources: A Review of Utility Market Research. NREL/TP-550-26148. Golden: CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, July 1999. (PDF 412 KB)

Farhar, B.C. and J. Buhrmann Public Response to Residential Grid-Tied PV Systems in Colorado: A Qualitative Market Assessment. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1998. NREL/TP-550-24004. (PDF 436 KB)

Friedman, B., L. Bird, and G. Barbose, 2008. Considerations for Emerging Markets for Energy Savings Certificates, NREL/TP-670-44072. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, October. (PDF 825 KB)

Guild, W., R. Lehr, D. Thomas. 2003. Nebraska Public Power District Customer Meeting on Energy Alternatives: Summary of Results. August 19. (PDF 680 KB)

Hanson, Craig, 2005. Corporate Guide to Green Power Markets (Installment 7): The Business Case for Using Renewable Energy. World Resources Institute, Washington, DC. (PDF 143 KB)

Harmon, R., and T.J. Starrs, 2004. Changing the Mix: Meeting Customer Expectations in the Green Power Market. Paper prepared for the American Solar Energy Society presented at SOLAR 2004 Conference, Portland, Oregon, July 9-14, 2004.

Heeter, J. and J. McLaren, 2012. Innovations in Voluntary Renewable Energy Procurement: Methods for Expanding Access and Lowering Cost for Communities, Governments, and Businesses. NREL/TP-6A20-54991 (PDF 1.0 MB)

Holt, E. and R. Wiser. Understanding Consumer Demand for Green Power. Report prepared for the National Wind Coordinating Committee, 1999.

Interstate Renewable Energy Council, 2012. Community-Shared Solar Diverse Approaches For A Common Goal. (PDF 3.6 MB)

Jacobsen, G.D., M.J. Kotchen, and M.P. Vandenbergh. (2010). "The Behavioral Response to Voluntary Provision of an Environmental Public Good: Evidence from Residential Electricity Demand." National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA. Working Paper 16608 / JEL No. H41,Q42,Q54. December.

Kotchen, M., 2006. "Green Markets and Private Provision of Public Goods." Journal of Political Economy. 114(4):816-834. (PDF 400 KB)

Kotchen M. and M. Moore, 2007. "Private Provision of Environmental Public Goods: Household Participation in Green-Electricity Programs." Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 53:1-16.

Kotcheny, M.J. and M.R. Moore (2004). Conservation Behavior: From Voluntary Restraint to a Voluntary Price Premium. Williamstown, MA: Williams College, October. (PDF 264 KB)

Lehr, R.L., W. Guild, D. Thomas, B. Swezey, 2003. Listening to Customers: How Deliberative Polling Helped Build 1,000 MW of New Renewable Energy Projects in Texas, NREL/TP-620-33177. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, June. (PDF 828 KB)

Nakarado, G.L. A Marketing Orientation Is the Key to a Sustainable Energy Future. White Paper. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1996.

Natural Marketing Institute and Center for Resource Solutions, 2009. Unlocking The Power of Renewable Energy Certification To Build Credibility With Consumers. Center for Resource Solutions, June. (PDF 237 KB)

Natural Marketing Institute, 2011. Consumer Attitudes About Renewable Energy. NREL/SR-6A20-50988. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, April. (PDF 492 KB) Related Presentation: Consumer Attitudes About Renewable Energy (PowerPoint 930 KB)

Putt del Pino, Samantha, 2006. Switching to Green: A renewable energy guide for office and retail companies. World Resources Institute, Washington, DC, October. (PDF 1.36 MB)

Q4 Associates and TecMRKT Works. The Fort Collins Wind Power Pilot Program: Who Subscribed and Why?. Prepared for the City of Fort Collins Utilities, Fall 1999.

Roe, B., M. F. Teisl, A. Levy, and M. Russell. "US Consumers' Willingness to Pay for Green Electricity," Energy Policy 29 (11): 917-925, 2001.

Rowlands, I.H., D. Scott and P. Parker. "Consumers and Green Electricity: Profiling Potential Purchasers," Business Strategy and the Environment, Bus. Strat. Env. 12: 36-48, 2003. (PDF 125 KB)

Rowlands, I.H., P. Parker and D. Scott. "Consumer Perceptions of 'Green Power'," Journal of Consumer Marketing, (19)2: 112-129, 2002.

Swezey, B., J. Aabakken, and L. Bird, 2007. A Preliminary Examination of the Supply and Demand Balance for Renewable Electricity, NREL/TP-670-42266. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, October. (PDF 530 KB)

Terzic, B. 2000 Deloitte & Touche Consulting Consumer Awareness Survey of Electric Deregulation. Deloitte & Touche, October 18, 2000.

U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, World Resources Institute, Center for Resource Solutions, 2010. Guide to Purchasing Green Power: Renewable Electricity, Renewable Energy Certificates, and On-Site Renewable Generation (Updated). Washington, D.C. ISBN: 1-56973-577-8. March. (PDF 2.0 MB)

U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, World Resources Institute, Center for Resource Solutions. 2004. Guide to Purchasing Green Power: Renewable Electricity, Renewable Energy Certificates, and On-Site Renewable Generation. September. (PDF 960 KB)

Wiser, R. 1998. "Green Power Marketing: Increasing Customer Demand for Renewable Energy." Utilities Policy, 7 (2): 107-119.

Wiser, R., Bolinger, M., Holt, E. 2000. "Customer Choice and Green Power in the United States: How Far Can It Take Us?" Energy and Environment, 11(4): 461-477.

Wood, L., A. Kenyon, W. Desvousges and L. Morander "How Much Are Customers Willing to Pay for Improvements in Health and Environmental Quality?" Electricity Journal 8 (4): 70-77, 1995.

Zarnikau, J. 2003. "Consumer Demand for 'Green Power' and Energy Efficiency." Energy Policy, 31: 1661-1672.

Net Metering

Forsyth, T.L., M. Pedden, and T. Gagliano. The Effects of Net Metering on the Use of Small-Scale Wind Systems in the United States (PDF 1.3 MB), National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-500-32471, November 2002.

Network for New Energy Choices, 2007. Freeing the Grid: 2007 Edition. Report prepared by the Network for New Energy Choices, the Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC), the Vote Solar Initiative, and the Solar Alliance, New York, NY, November. Report No. 02-07. (PDF 2.2 MB)

Starrs, T. Net Metering: New Opportunities for Home Power. Washington D.C.: Renewable Energy Policy Project, 1996.

Wan, Y. Net Metering Programs, NREL/SP-460-21651, Topical Issues Brief. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, December 1996.

Wan, Y. and Green, H.J. Current Experience with Net Metering Programs, Presented at WINDPOWER '98, Bakersfield, CA. April 27-May 1, 1998. (PDF 230 KB)

Renewable Energy Certificates

Blank, E. with L. Bird and B. Swezey. "A Certificate-Based Approach to Marketing Green Power and Constructing New Wind Energy Facilities." Conference paper prepared for Windpower 2002, June 2-5, 2002, Portland, Oregon. (PDF 472 KB)

Center for Resource Solutions. (2003). Regulator's Handbook on Tradable Renewable Certificates, San Francisco, California.

Center for Resource Solutions. Renewable Energy Credits Trading: The Potential and the Pitfalls, San Francisco, California, 2001.

Cory, Karlynn S., Nils Bolgen, and Barry J. Sheingold, 2004. Long-Term Revenue Support To Help Developers Secure Project Financing. Paper prepared for the Massachusetts Technology Collaborative presented at Global Windpower 2004 Conference And Exhibition, Chicago, Illinois, March 28-31, 2004. (PDF 214 KB)

Econergy International Corporation. Credit Trading and Wind Power: Issues and Opportunities. Prepared for the National Wind Coordinating Committee, January 2001.

Environmental Tracking Network of North America (ETNNA), 2010. The Intersection Between Carbon, RECs, and Tracking: Accounting and Tracking the Carbon Attributes of Renewable Energy. White Paper, February. (PDF 406 KB)

Federal Energy Management Program, "Quick Guide: Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs)" (Fact Sheet). FS-7A20-52105; DOE/GO-102011-3339, 2011. (PDF 545 KB)

Fitzgerald, G., R. Wiser, and M. Bolinger, 2003. The Experience of State Clean Energy Funds with Tradable Renewable Certificates, Berkeley, California: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Clean Energy States Alliance, November. (PDF 464 KB)

Ford, Andrew, K. Vogstad, H. Flynn, 2007. "Simulating price patterns for tradable green certificates to promote electricity generation form wind." Energy Policy, Volume 35, Issue 1, January. (PDF 445 KB)

Gillenwater, M., 2007. Redefining RECs (Part 1): Untangling attributes and offsets, Discussion paper, Science Technology and Environmental Policy Program. Princeton University, Princeton, NJ. (PDF 323 KB)

Gillenwater, M., 2007. Redefining RECs (Part 2): Untangling certificates and emission markets, Discussion paper, Science Technology and Environmental Policy Program. Princeton University, Princeton, NJ. (PDF 167 KB)

Giovinetto, A. "On the Track of Green Certificates," Environmental Finance, September 2003. (PDF 520 KB)

Grace, R. and R. Wiser. Transacting Generation Attributes Across Market Boundaries: Compatible Information Systems and the Treatment of Imports and Exports, LBNL-51703, November 2002. (PDF 538 KB)

Hanson, C., V. Van Son, "RECs: Innovative Products for Wind Power Markets," North American Windpower, May 2004. (PDF 244 KB)

Hanson, C., V. Van Son, "RECs: Tapping Into The Commercial Customer," North American Windpower, June 2004. (PDF 208 KB)

Hanson, C. and V. Van Son, 2003. Renewable Energy Certificates: An Attractive Means For Corporate Customers To Purchase Renewable Energy. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute, September. (PDF 151 KB)

Harmon, R. and A. Duncan. Description of BEF's Green Tag Product, Bonneville Environmental Foundation, July 15, 2000. (PDF 184 KB)

Heeter, J., 2013. Renewable Energy Certificate (REC) Tracking Systems: Costs & Verification Issues (Presentation). NREL/PR-6A20-60640. (PDF 517 KB)

Heeter, J., L. Bird, 2011. Status and Trends in U.S. Compliance and Voluntary Renewable Energy Certificate Markets (2010 Data). NREL/TP-6A20-52925 (PDF 1.6 MB)

Holt, E. and R. Wiser, 2007. The Treatment of Renewable Energy Certificates, Emissions Allowances, and Green Power Programs in State Renewables Portfolio Standards. Report prepared for Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California, April. LBNL-62574. (PDF 292 KB)

Holt, E., J. Sumner, L. Bird, 2011. Role of Renewable Energy Certificates in Developing New Renewable Energy Projects. TP-6A20-51904. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, July. (PDF 1.1 MB)

Holt, E. "Renewable Energy Certificates and Generation Attributes," Issuesletter, Regulatory Assistance Project, Gardiner, Maine, May 2003. (PDF 356 KB)

Holt, E., L. Bird, "Emerging Markets For RECs: Opportunities And Challenges," North American Windpower, July 2005. (PDF 124 KB)

Holt, E.A. and L. Bird, 2005. Emerging Markets for Renewable Energy Certificates: Opportunities and Challenges, NREL/TP-620-37388. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, January. (PDF 1.9 MB)

Holt, Ed, R. Wiser and M. Bolinger, 2006. Who Owns Renewable Energy Certificates? An Exploration of Policy Options and Practice. Report prepared for Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California, April. LBNL-59965. (PDF 376 KB)

Holt, Ed. "Tradable Renewable Energy Certificates," Green Power Newsletter, Number 8, Regulatory Assistance Project, Gardiner, Maine, July 2001. (PDF 185 KB)

Leahy, P. and A. Hathaway, 2004. Renewable Energy Certificates and Air Emissions Benefits: Developing an Appropriate Definition for a REC. Washington, DC: Environmental Resources Trust, Inc. (ERT), April. (PDF 180 KB)

Lieberman, Dan (2004). The Need for Green-E Certification and Verification in an Era of Renewable Energy Tracking Systems. San Francisco, CA: Center for Resource Solutions (CRS), March. (PDF 257 KB)

Lieberman, Dan, (2004). Tradable Renewable Certificates and Emissions Values: The CRS Perspective on Best Practices in Marketing. San Francisco, CA: Center for Resource Solutions (CRS), March. (PDF 603 KB)

NARUC Energy Resources and Environment Committee, "Resolution to Support the Incorporation of Regional Energy Generation Tracking Systems in ISO/RTO Responsibilities and in FERC's Standard Market Design" Summer 2002.

NARUC Energy Resources and Environment Committee, "Resolution Supporting a Handbook for Regulators on Renewable Energy Certificate," Winter 2003.

National Wind Coordinating Committee, 2002. NWCC Credit Trading and Wind Power: Issues and Opportunities, February. (PDF 401 KB)

National Wind Coordinating Committee, 2001. Consensus NWCC Credit Trading Opportunities and Guidelines, Washington, D.C., May. (PDF 47 KB)

Presentations from the DOE/EPA Green Tags Meeting, December 12, 2000.

Renewable Energy Certificate (REC) Markets and Challenges Workshop Proceedings. Washington, DC. September 11, 2007.

Starrs, T. "Green Tags: A New Way to Support Renewable Energy," Solar Today, July/August 2001. (PDF 383 KB)

Swezey, B., L. Bird. "Buying Green Power - You Really Can Make a Difference," Solar Today, Jan/Feb 2003. (PDF 128 KB)

Wingate, Meredith and M. Lehman, (2003). The Current Status of Renewable Energy Certificate Tracking Systems in North America. Report to The Commission for Environmental Cooperation, December. (PDF 419 KB)

Technology-Specific

Atcha, S.Y. and V.T. Van Son. Corporate Guide to Green Power Markets (Installment 2): Opportunities with Landfill Gas (PDF 422 KB), World Resources Institute, Washington, DC, September 2002.

Bigger, J. E. "Green Pricing: Is It Working as a Means of Commercializing PV?" UPVG PV Vision, 5:1, Winter 1997.

Bird, L., A. Reger, and J. Heeter, 2012. Distributed Solar Incentive Programs: Recent Experience and Best Practices for Design and Implementation. NREL/TP-6A20-56308. (PDF 1.1 MB)

Bolinger, M., R. Wiser and W. Golove. Quantifying the Value that Wind Power Provides as a Hedge Against Volatile Natural Gas Prices (PDF 88 KB), LBNL-50484, June 2002.

Gibson, B. "Green Price, Green Power: Meeting Customer Demand for Clean Power Opens the Market for PV." The UPVG Record, Spring 1997, p. 1.

Hamrin, J., R. Wiser, K. McCormack, and E. Holt. New Markets for Wind: Creating Competitive Advantage. Report prepared for the National Wind Coordinating Committee, 1999.

Pepper, J.C. "Opportunities for Wind in the APX Green Power Market," Presented at WINDPOWER '98, Bakersfield, CA. April 27-May 1, 1998. (PDF 128 KB)

Pepper, J.C. "Opportunities for Biomass in the APX Green Power Market," Paper presented at the 4th Biomass Conference of the Americas, Oakland, CA, August 29-September 2, 1999.

The UPVG Record "Will Power Marketers Go Solar?" Spring 1997, p. 1.

 

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